La Rumeur are a French hip-hop quartet with a strong base in the cités (or immigrant suburbs) of Paris, renowned for their politically subversive and confrontational lyrical content. Made up of MCs Ekoué, Hamé, Mourad, and Philippe (all graduates of French universities), La Rumeur identify themselves as not a French rap group, but rather a rap group for black immigrants living in France. They began recording and releasing their material independently in the late '90s. Their debut EP, Le Poison d'Avril, came out in 1997 and was sold at live shows or out of the trunks of cars. The records that followed, Le Franc Tireur (1998) and La Bavar & la Paria (1999), grew both La Rumeur's fan base and their reputation as the most violent, confrontational lyricists on the scene. Their full-length debut record, Ombre Sur la Mesure, was released in 2002, with lyrics paying homage to the immigrant experiences of their parents' generation.